2018年6月28日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
松村敏弘 氏 (東京大学)
Title: Firms' Costs, Profits, Entries, and Innovation under Optimal Privatization Policy (abstract)
We investigate how cost conditions of private firms affect optimal privatization policy and private firms' profits.
We find that the optimal degree of privatization is decreasing with the costs of private firms unless the public firm is fully privatized in equilibrium.
A cost reduction in a private firm increases the degree of privatization and benefits for all private firms.
Therefore, each private firm's profit is increasing with its rival private firms' costs, which is in contrast to the result when the degree of privatization is given exogenously.
This interesting property yields two important results. The profit of each private firm can increase with the number of private firms, and the positive externality of innovation accelerates private firms' R&D.
2018年7月5日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
釜賀浩平 氏 (上智大学)
Title: An axiomatization of the mixed utilitarian-maximin social welfare orderings (abstract)
We axiomatize the class of mixed utilitarian-maximin social welfare orderings. These orderings are convex combinations of utilitarianism and the maximin rule.
Our first step is to show that the conjunction of the weak Suppes-Sen principle, the Pigou-Dalton transfer principle,
the composite transfer principle, and continuity is equivalent to the existence of a continuous and monotone ordering of pairs of average and minimum utilities that can be used to rank utility vectors.
Using this observation, the main result of the paper establishes that the utilitarian-maximin social welfare orderings are characterized by adding the axiom of cardinal full comparability.
In addition, we examine the consequences of replacing cardinal full comparability with ratioscale full comparability and translation-scale full comparability, respectively.
We also discuss the classes of normative inequality measures corresponding to our social welfare orderings.
2018年7月19日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
Language: English, 応用統計計量ワークショップとの共催
YoungJin Choi 氏 (Temple University)
Title: TBA (abstract)
2018年7月26日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
會田剛史 氏 (アジア経済研究所)
Title: Spatial vs. Social Network Effects in Risk Sharing (abstract)
Employing spatial panel econometric models, this study extends the conventional empirical test of the full risk-sharing hypothesis
to incorporate spatial and social network effects, and quantifies the diffusion of income shocks in each network.
Estimation results based on household survey data in Southern Sri Lanka show that consumption smoothing performs better in spatial networks than in social ones,
because income shocks defuse more effectively among neighboring households.
This study also shows the limitations of the conventional test when it is considered a special case of a spatial econometric model.
2018年8月2日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
高橋修平 氏 (京都大学)
Title: Does State-Dependent Wage Setting Generate Multiple Equilibria? (abstract)
Does wage setting show strategic complementarity and produce multiple equilibria?
This study constructs a discrete-time New Keynesian model in which households choose when to change their wage subject to a fixed wage-setting cost.
I analyze a steady-state equilibrium of the state-dependent wage-setting model both analytically and numerically.
I find that for reasonable parameter values, complementarity in wage setting is weak and multiple equilibria are unlikely to exist at the steady state.
This result is robust to introducing imperfect insurance for consumption.
2018年10月18日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
平野智裕 氏 (東京大学)
Title: TBA (abstract)
2018年10月25日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
Christina Atanasova 氏 (Simon Fraser University)
Title: TBA (abstract)
2018年4月19日(木) 16:20-18:20 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
鈴木通雄 氏 (東北大学)
Title: Decomposition of Aggregate Productivity Growth with Unobserved Heterogeneity (abstract)
Aggregate productivity growth and the role of input reallocation have been hotly debated.
Yet, it has received little attention as to how the measurement of reallocation relies on the commonly-made assumption that a production technology is uniform within an industry.
To quantify the effects of unobserved heterogeneity in production technology, we estimate a random-coefficient Cobb-Douglas production function.
We identify plant type from the distribution of the intermediate inputs to sales ratio using the first order condition without permanent distortions in intermediate input markets.
The empirical analysis uses plant-level data from the Census of Manufacture.
We find that accounting for unobserved heterogeneity lowers the volatility of technical efficiency and reallocation contributions.
For knitted garments industry that features large dispersion in the intermediate input share, the average growth rate of the reallocation component over the 5-year period after the bubble burst in Japan is -0.5% with heterogeneity, while it is 0.4% without heterogeneity.
湯田道生 氏 (東北大学)
Title: Medical Assistance System and Outpatient Health Care Utilization: Evidence from Japan (abstract)
The medical assistance (MA) system in Japan provides medical care services to public assistance beneficiaries without any financial burden,
but it also could potentially increase the medical expenditure due to the two major inefficiencies: moral hazard and supplier-induced demand.
In this study, nationally representative sets of medical claim data are used to examine how assignment to the MA system affects the utilization of outpatient health care.
Empirical results obtained using a dummy endogenous variable model to control for non-random MA assignment,
which is subject to means testing by the local government, shows that MA assignment significantly increases medical expenditure.
Its arc elasticity ranges from -0.171 to -0.160, which is comparable to the RAND Health Insurance Experiment.
In addition, after excluding fatal patients, the elasticity increases to -0.250, which exceeds that obtained in recent empirical studies of low-income populations.
In addition, the elasticities for new MA patients are significantly larger than those for continuing patients and that MA clinic patients are particularly price-sensitive.
2018年4月26日(木) 16:30-18:00 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
Language: English, いつもと時間が異なります。
Ian Coxhead 氏 (University of Wisconsin-Madison)
Title: Persistent privilege? Institutional education achievement gaps in Vietnam (abstract)
In an earlier paper examining Vietnam’s early economic transition, we documented a large educational
achievement gap in favor of children from families with members employed by government or state enterprises. In
this paper, we ask what has happened to that gap in the subsequent decade, as Vietnam’s private-sector economy has
boomed and state corporations have contracted in relative terms. We find that despite these trends, high school and
college enrollment by children of households that lack connections to state-sector employment continue to lag those
that do, and in fact the gap has become appreciably wider. Though “connections” are not the only basis for
differences in schooling decisions, they are a major cause of slow and unequal progress in educational attainment, a
problem with consequences for intergenerational inequality and long-run growth.
2018年5月11日(金) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
八木橋毅司 氏 (Old Dominion University)
Title: Intertemporal Elasticity of Substitution with Leisure Margin (abstract)
This paper investigates whether leisure time definitions matter in the estimation of the intertemporal elasticity of substitution of consumption (IES)
by using a utility specification that allows interaction between consumption and leisure time.
We find that the IES estimated using a narrowly defined leisure measure that excludes quasi-leisure activities is larger than that estimated using nonmarket time.
The discrepancy is largely driven by the substitution of consumption and several leisure components over the lifecycle.
This finding is robust in alternative specifications and holds well for subsamples of higher socioeconomic status.
Our results demonstrate the inseparable nature of consumption and time allocation.
2018年5月17日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
山田知明 氏 (明治大学)
Title: The Effects of Monetary Policy Shocks on Inequality in Japan (abstract)
The impacts of monetary easing on inequality have been attracting increasing attention recently.
In this paper, we use the micro-level data on Japanese households to study the distributional effects of monetary policy.
We construct quarterly series of income and consumption inequality measures from 1981 to 2008, and estimate their response to a monetary policy shock.
We find that monetary policy shocks do not have a statistically significant impact on inequality across Japanese households in a stable manner.
When considering inequality across households whose head is employed, we find evidence that,
before the 2000s, an expansionary monetary policy shock increased income inequality through a rise in earnings inequality.
Such procyclical responses are, however, scarcely observed when the current data are included in the sample period, or when earnings inequality across all households is considered.
We also find that transmission of income inequality to consumption inequality is minor,
including during the period when procyclicality of income inequality was pronounced.
Using a two-sector dynamic general equilibrium model with attached labor inputs,
we show that labor market flexibility is central to the dynamics of income inequality after monetary policy shocks.
We also use the micro-level data on households' balance sheets and show that distributions of households' financial assets and liabilities
do not play a significant role in the distributional effects of monetary policy.
2018年5月24日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
小西秀樹 氏 (早稲田大学)
Title: How Redistributive are the Hidden Welfare States?: Private Social Expenditure and Redistribution in OECD countries (abstract)
The modern welfare states provide social protection services not only directly from the public sector but also from the private sector, e.g.,
by mandating employment-based provisions and giving tax breaks for voluntary transactions for social purposes.
This paper incorporates such private social expenditures and estimates the redistributive impacts of social protection systems in OECD countries, using a dynamic panel model.
It is found that the redistributive impact decreases as the system relies more on the private sector, some countries have no statistically significant redistributive impacts,
and the OECD countries have strengthened redistribution thought social policy on average after 2000.
It is also discussed how the estimation results depend on the choice of the income inequality index to regress.
2018年6月7日(木) 16:20-17:50 第401演習室（文科系総合研究棟4階）
白井大地 氏 (東北学院大学)
Title: Debt-Ridden Borrowers and Economic Slowdown (abstract)
Economic growth slows for an extended period after a financial crisis.
We construct a model in which a one-time buildup of debt can depress the economy persistently, even when there is no financial technology shock.
We consider the debt dynamics of firms under endogenous borrowing constraints, with lenders having an option to forgive defaulting borrowers.
A firm is referred to as debt-ridden when it owes maximum debt and pays all income in each period as an interest payment.
In the deterministic case, a debt-ridden firm continues inefficient production permanently.
Further, if the initial debt exceeds a certain threshold, the firm intentionally chooses to increase borrowing and,
thus, to become debt-ridden. The emergence of a substantial number of debt-ridden firms lowers economic growth persistently.
A debt restructuring policy or the relief of debt-ridden borrowers from excessive debt may be able to restore their efficiency and economic growth.
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